Do I have to pay to use the URICA or other TTM measures?
No, most of the measures are in the public domain so there is no cost to use them. There are some exceptions and there are links to purchase those rather than the actual scale on this site where that applies.
How can I request additional information about the TTM measures?
Email email@example.com and request information. We have information packets available on Staging and Readiness (focusing on use of the URICA), Smoking, Alcohol, and Self-Efficacy. We are also happy to provide tailored information and advice for your population of interest and needs. However, please be sure to review the information on our site first to assure that your question has not been answered. When you contact us, please include your scale of interest, what population you are planning to use the scale with, what behavior(s) you intend to examine, and your purpose of measurement (e.g., clinical; research; evaluation).
How do I reference the URICA?
It is important to remember that there are many versions of the URICA and the URICA has been modified and changed over the years. Thus, you will need to identify what version you are using and make certain you obtain and read the correct reference. One recommendation is for you to read and reference the following article:
DiClemente, C.C., Schlundt, D. & Gemmell, L. (2004). Readiness and stages of change in addiction treatment. The American Journal on Addiction, 13, 103-119.
This is the most recently published article focusing on some of the issues and limitations around the URICA and readiness measurement. This reference is recommended IN ADDITION to the appropriate reference for the specific version of the URICA you are using.
Is the Transtheoretical Stages of Change the same as Motivational Interviewing?
It is important to understand that the TTM Stages of Change and Motivational Interviewing (MI) are NOT the same thing. Although the TTM and MI are often talked about in similar contexts, it is important to remember that the TTM is a way of understanding the process, behaviors, and experiences of change that individuals go through when modifying their behavior, while MI is a method of counseling used to help motivate individuals to change their behavior. If you have the opportunity, please take a look at Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People for Change by Miller and Rollnick (2013) to gain a better understanding of how to use MI to assist people in changing their behavior.
Has the URICA been translated into ________ (language)?
The URICA has been translated into a number of languages, including Chinese, Arabic, Portugese, Spanish, Norwegian, and Dutch. We do not provide the translated versions, but we may be able to direct you to the appropriate article if you are unable to locate the source. Authors of the adapted versions should be contacted directly to access translated measures.
Has the TTM been applied to __________ (behavior)?
TTM constructs, particularly the stages of change, have been applied to a vast array of problems and behaviors, including (but not limited to):
- Substance use initiation and cessation (alcohol; tobacco; illicit drugs)
- Weight loss; weight management
- Healthy eating behaviors
- Physical activity and compliance among individuals with diabetes
- Panic disorder
- Criminal recidivism
- Intimate partner violence
- Binge eating and compensatory behaviors
- Somatoform disorders
- Vocational readiness among the mentally ill
- Health professionals’ readiness to practice integrated care, use electronic health records, etc.
- Sexual health; condom use
- Institutional change toward interprofessional education
- Sun protective behavior
If you are interested in gaining more information about any of these adaptations, we may be able to direct you to articles, readings, and/or relevant researchers. Please Contact us for more information.
Have the URICA and other TTM measures been used or validated with adolescents?
With regards to using the URICA with adolescents, it seems as though there has been a little work done with adolescents and the URICA, but not a significant amount. Developmental issues can make evaluating stages of initiation or stages of recovery more challenging. It is important to consider whether you are attempting to examine initiation of behaviors (e.g. starting to drink) or cessation of behaviors (e.g. quitting smoking). More research has looked at the Transtheoretical Model’s usefulness for understanding cessation than for initiation. Understanding the stages of change as well as the stage tasks is important for any researcher examining behavior change. Please also remember that some research has used algorithms rather than full measures to examine the stages of change, and this approach may or may not be useful for you in your own research. Below are a few references that may help you find the information you are looking for, or at least lead you to a researcher focusing on adolescents.
Callaghan, R.C., Hathaway, A., Cunningham, J.A., Vettese, L.C., Wyatt, S., & Taylor, L. (2005).
Does stage-of-change predict dropout in a culturally diverse sample of adolescents admitted to inpatient substance-abuse treatment? A test of the Transtheoretical model. Addictive Behaviors, 30(9), 1834-1847.
Greenstein, D.K., Franklin, M.E., & McGuffin, P. (1999). Measuring motivation to change: An examination of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Questionnaire (URICA) in an adolescent sample. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 36(1), 47-55.
Pallonen, U.E., Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S., Bellis, J.M., Tsoh, J.Y., Migneault, J.P., Smith, N.F., & Prokhorov, A.V. (1998). Computer-based smoking cessation intervnetions in Adolescents: Description, feasibility, and six-month follow-up findings. Substance Use & Misuse, 33(4), 935-965.
Stephens, S., Cellucci, T., & Gregory, J. (2004). Comparing stage of change measures in adolescent smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 29(4), 759-764.
Stern, R.A., Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., & Elder, J.P. (1987). Stages of adolescent cigarette smoking acquisition: measurement and sample profiles. Addictive Behaviors, 12, 319-329.