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  • Shaw, M. A., & DiClemente, C. C. (2016). Temptation Minus Self-Efficacy in Alcohol Relapse: A Project MATCH Follow-Up. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 77(3), 521-525.  doi: 10.15288/jsad.2016.77.521


  • DiClemente, C.C., Delahanty, J.C., Havas, S.W., & Van Orden, O.R. (2015). Understanding self-reported staging of dietary behavior in low-income women. Journal of Health Psychology, 20(6), 741-753. doi: 10.1177/1359105315580213
  • Giudice, E.L., Lewin, L.O., Welsh, C., Crouch, T.B., Wright, K.S., Delahanty, J., & DiClemente, C.C. (2015). Online versus in-person screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) training in pediatric residents. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 7(1), 53-58. doi: 10.4300/JGME-D-14-00367.1
  • Crouch, T.B., DiClemente, C.C., & Pitts, S. (2015). End-of-treatment abstinence self-efficacy, behavioral processes of change, and posttreatment drinking outcomes in Project MATCH. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. Advance Online Publicationdoi: 10.1037/adb00000
  • DiClemente, C.C., Greene, P., & Petersen, A., Thrash, S., & Crouch, T.B. (2015). Motivational enhancement in the treatment of substance abuse. In M. Galanter and H.D. Kleber (Eds.), Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment (5th Ed; pp. 397-407). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.


  • Williams, A. A., & Wright, K. S. (2014). Engaging families through Motivational Interviewing. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 61(5), 907-921. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2014.06.014
  • DiClemente, C.C., Crouch, T.B., Norwood, A.E.Q., Delahanty, J., & Welsh, C. (2014). Evaluating training of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for substance use: Reliability of the MD3 SBIRT Coding Scale. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29(1). doi: 10.1037/adb0000022
  • Greenfield, S. F., Sugarman, D. E., Freid, C. M., Bailey, G. L., Crisafulli, M. A., Kaufman, J. S., Wigderson, S., Connery, H. S., Rodolico, J., Morgan-Lopez, A. A., & Fitzmaurice, G. M. (2014). Group therapy for women with substance use disorders: Results from the Women’s Recovery Group study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.06.035
  • Greenfield, S. F., Crisafulli, M. A., Kaufman, J. S., Freid, C. M., Bailey, G. L., Connery, H. S., Rapoza, M., & Rodolico, J. (2014). Implementing substance abuse group therapy clinical trials in real-world settings: Challenges and strategies for participant recruitment and therapist training in the Women’s Recovery Group Study. American Journal on Addictions, 23, 197-204.


  • Connors, G., DiClemente, C.C., Velasquez, M., & Donovan, D. (2013).Substance abuse treatment and the stages of change (2nd Ed.). Guilford Press.
    • A Special Offer from Guilford Press: Save 20% with Promotion Code 2E
  • Welsh, C., Earley, K., Delahanty, J., Wright, K., Berens, T., Williams, A.A., Barnett, B., & DiClemente, C.C. (2013).  Residents’ knowledge of standard drink equivalents: Implications for screening and brief intervention for at-risk alcohol use. The American Journal on Addictions.


  • Gregory, H. Jr., Van Orden, O., Jordan, L., Portnoy, G. A., Welsh, E., Betkowski, J., Charles, J. W., & DiClemente, C. C. (2012). New Directions in Capacity Building: Incorporating Cultural Competence into the Interactive Systems Framework. American Journal of Community Psychology, 50(3-4). doi: 10.1007/s10464-012-9508-8
  • Hill-Briggs, F., Schumann, K.P., & Dike, O. (2012). 5-Step methodology for evaluation and adaptation of print patient health information to meet the <5th grade readability criterion. Medical Care, 50, 294-301.
  • Kelly, D. L., Raley, H. G., Lo, S., Wright, K., Liu, F., McMahon, R. P., & … Heishman, S. J. (2012). Perception of smoking risks and motivation to quit among nontreatment-seeking smokers with and without schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38(3), 543-551. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbq124


  • DiClemente, C.C., Holmgren, M.A., & Rounsaville, D. (2011). Relapse Prevention and Recycling in Addiction. In B. Johnson (Ed.) Addiction Medicine: Science and Practice, New York:Springer.
  • DiClemente, C., Schumann, K., Greene, P., & Earley, M. (2011). A Transtheoretical Model Perspective on Change: Process Focused Interventions for Mental Health and Substance Abuse. In Cooper, D. (Ed.). Principles of Intervention in Mental Health-Substance Use. Radcliff, London.
  • DiClemente, C.C., Van Orden, O.R., & Wright, K.S. (2011). Motivational Interviewing and Enhancement. In Ruiz, P. & Strain, E. (Eds.). Lowinson & Ruiz’s Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook, Fifth Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Baltimore.
  • DiClemente, C. C., Kofeldt, M., & Gemmell, L. (2011). Motivational enhancement. In M. Galanter, H. D. Kleber (Eds.), Psychotherapy for the treatment of substance abuse (pp. 125-152). Arlington, VA US: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
  • DiClemente, C. C., Delahanty, J. C., Kofeldt, M. G., Dixon, L., Goldberg, R., Lucksted, A. (2011). Stage movement following a 5 As intervention in tobacco dependent individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). Addictive Behaviors, 36(3), 261-264.
  • DiClemente, C.C. (2011). Project MATCH. In J. C. Norcross, G. R. Vandebos & D. K. Freidheim, (Eds.), History of Psychotherapy (pp. 395-401). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Werch, C., Bian, H., Carlson J. M., Moore, M. J., DiClemente, C. C., Huang, I.  Ames, S., Thombs, D., Weiler, R. M., PoKorny, S. B. (2011). Brief integrative multiple behavior intervention effects and mediators for adolescents.  Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 34(1), 3-12.
  • Ryb, G. E., Dischinger, P. C., DiClemente, C. C., Auman, K. M., Kufera, J. A., Soderstrom, C. A. (2011). Impulsive or depressive personality traits do not impede behavioral change after brief alcohol interventions.  Journal of Addictive Diseases, 30(1), 54-62.
  • Dickerson, F., Bennett, M., Dixon, L., Burke, E., Vaughn, C., Delahanty, J., & DiClemente, C.C.(2011). Smoking cessation in persons with mental illness: The experience of successful quitters.  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 34(4), 311-316.
  • Penberthy, J. K., Hook, J. N., Vaughan, M. D., Davis, D. E., Wagley, J. N., DiClemente, C. C., & Johnson, B. A. (2011). Impact of motivational changes on drinking outcomes in pharmacobehavioral treatment for alcohol dependence. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 35(9), 1694-1704.
  • Lo, S., Heishman, S. J.,Raley, H., Wright, K., Wehring, H. J., Moolchan, E. T., Feldman, S.,Liu, F., McMahon, R. P., Richardson, C. M.,& Kelly, D. L. (2011). Tobacco craving in smokers with and without schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 127(1-3), 241-245.
  • Schumann, K.P., Sutherland, J.A., Majid, H.M. & Hill-Briggs, F. (2011). Evidence-based behavioral treatments for diabetes: Problem-solving therapy. Diabetes Spectrum, 24, 64-69.


  • DiClemente, C. C., Delahanty, J. C., & Fiedler, R. M. (2010).The Journey to the End of Smoking: A Personal and Population Perspective.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38(3), 418-428.
  • Delahanty, J. C., DiClemente, C. C, & Garay, M. M (2010).  Addiction to Nicotine. Women and the tobacco epidemic: Challenges for the 21st century, 2nd edition.  In J. M. Samet & S-Y. Yoon (Eds.).  The World Health Organization.
  • DiClemente, C. C., Delahanty, J. C., & Garay, M. M (2010). Pregnancy and postpartum smoking cessation. Women and the tobacco epidemic: Challenges for the 21st century, 2nd edition. In J. M. Samet & S-Y. Yoon (Eds.).  The World Health Organization.
  • Garay, M. M., DiClemente, C. C., & Delahanty, J. C. (2010). Quitting smoking and beating nicotine addiction: A woman’s perspective. Women and the tobacco epidemic: Challenges for the 21st century, 2nd edition. In J. M. Samet & S-Y. Yoon (Eds.). The World Health Organization.
  • DiClemente, C. C., Holmgren, M. A., & Rounsaville, D. (2010). Relapse prevention and recycling in addiction. In B. A. Johnson (Ed.), Addiction Medicine: Science and Practice (pp. 765-782). New York: Springer.
  • Gold, M. A., Sheftel, A.V., Chiappetta, L., Young A., Zuckoff, A., DiClemente C. C., & Primack, B.A. (2010). Associations between religiosity and sexual and contraceptive behaviors. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 23(5), 290-297.
  • Werch, C. E., Moore, M. J., Bian, H., DiClemente, C. C., Huang, I., Ames, S. C., Thombs, D., Weiler, R. M., Pokorny, S. B. (2010). Are effects from a brief multiple behavior intervention for college students sustained over time? Preventive Medicine, 50, 30-34..
  • Werch, C. E., Bian, H., DiClemente, C. C., Moore, M. J., Thombs, D., Ames, S. C., Huang, I., Pokorny, S. B. (2010). A brief image-based prevention intervention for adolescents. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24(1), 170-175.
  • Pruitt, S. L., McQueen, A., Tiro, J. A., Rakowski, W., DiClemente, C. C., & Vernon, S. W. (2010). Construct validity of a mammography process of change scale and invariance by stage of change. Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 64-74.
  • Backinger, C. L., Thorton-Bullock, A., Miner, C., Orleans, C. T., Siener, K., DiClemente, C. C., Philips, T. M., Rowden, J. N., & Arkin, E. (2010). Building consumer demand for tobacco-cessation products and services. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38(3S), S307-S311.
  • DiClemente, C.C. (2010). Mindfulness – specific or generic mechanism of action [Peer commentary on the paper “Mindfulness-based treatments for co-occurring depression and substance use disorders: What can we learn from the brain?” by J. A. Brewer, S. Bowen, J. T. Smith, G. A. Marlatt, & M. N. Potenza]. Addiction, 105(10), 1707-8; discussion 1709-10.
  • Black, M. M., Hager, E. R., Le, K., Anliker, J., Arteaga, S. S., DiClemente, C. C., Gittleson, J., Magder, L., Papas, M., Snitker, S., Treuth, M. S., & Wang, Y. (2010). Challenge! Health promotion/Obesity prevention mentorship model among urban, black adolescents. Pediatrics, 126, 280-288.
  • Schumann, K.P., Touradji, P., & Hill-Briggs, F. (2010). Inpatient rehabilitation diabetes consult service: A rehabilitation psychology approach to assessment and intervention. Rehabilitation Psychology, 55, 331-339.


  • DiClemente, CC, Doyle, SR, & Donovan, D (2009). Predicting treatment seekers’ readiness to change their drinking behavior in the COMBINE Study. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research33,(5), 879-892. PMID: 19320633.
  • Bennett, M.E., Bellack, A.S., Brown, C.H., & DiClemente, C.C. (2009). Substance dependence and remission in schizophrenia: a comprison of schizophrenia and affective disorders. Addictive Behaviors, 34(10), 806-14.
  • Dixon, L.B., Medoff, D., Goldenberg, R., Lucksted, A., Kreyenbuhl, J, DiClemente, C., Potts, W., Leith, J, Brown, C., Adams, C. & Affuyl, J. (2009). Is implementation of the 5 As of smoking cessation at community health centers effective for reduction of smoking by patients with serious mental illness? American Journal on Addictions, 18(5), 386-392.
  • Kiluk, B.D., Culotta, V.P., & Weden, S. (2009). Sport participation and anxiety in children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 12(6), 499-506.
  • Stotts, A.L., Groff, J.Y., Velasquez, M.M., Benjamin,-Garner, R., Green, C., Carbonari, J.P., &DiClemente, C.C. (2009). Ultrasound feedback and motivational interviewing targeting smoking cessation in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, Nicotine and Tobacco Research,11(8), 961-968.


  • Delahanty, J.C., DiClemente, C.C., Havas, S., & Langenberg, P. (2008). Smoking status and stages of change for dietary behaviors among WIC women. American Journal of Health Behavior, 32(6), 583-593.
  • DiClemente, C.C., Garay, M., Gemmell, L. (2008). Motivation Enhancement in the Treatment of Substance Abuse.  In M. Galanter and H.D. Kleber (Eds.) American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse, Fourth Edition. American Psychiatric Publishing.
  • DiClemente, C.C., Nidecker, M., & Bellack, A.S. (2008). Motivation and the stages of change among individuals with severe mental illness and substance abuse disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 34(1), 25-35.
  • Nidecker, M., DiClemente, C.C., Bennett, M.E., & Bellack, A.S. (2008). Application of the Transtheoretical Model of change: Psychometric properties of leading measures in patients with co-occuring drug abuse and severe mental illness. Addictive Behaviors, 33(8), 1021-1030.
  • Werch, C.E., Bian, H. Moore, M.J., Ames, J. & DiClemente, C.C. (2008). Brief multiple behavior health interventions for older adolescents, American Journal of Health Promotion23(2), 92-96.


  • Buckworth, J., Lee, R.E., Regan, G., Schneider, L.K., & DiClemente, C.C. (2007). Decomposing Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Exercise: Application to Stages of Motivational Readiness. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8(4)441-461.
  • DiClemente, C.C. (2007). Mechanisms, Determinants and Process of Change in the Modification of Drinking Behavior.  Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(S3), 13S-20S.
  • DiClemente, C.C. (2007). The Transtheoretical Model of Intentional Behaviour Change.  Drugs and Alcohol Today, 7(1), 28-33.
  • Penburthy, J.K., Ait-Daoud, N., Breton, M., Kovatchev, B., DiClemente, C.C., & Johnson, B.A. (2007). Evaluating readiness and treatment seeking effects in a pharmacotherapy trail for alcohol dependence. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(9), 1538 – 1544.
  • Soderstrom, C.A., DiClemente, C.C., Dischinger, P.C., Hebel, J. R., McDuff, D.R., Auman, K.M., & Kufera, J. A. (2007). A controlled trial of brief intervention versus brief advice for at-risk drinking trauma center patients. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care, 62(5), 1102-1112.
  • Tracy, K., Babuscio, T., Nich, C., Kiluk, B.D., Carroll, K.M., Petry, N.M., & Rounsaville, B.J. (2007). Contingency management to reduce substance use in individuals who are homeless with co-occurring psychiatric disorders. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33(2), 253-258.


  • DiClemente, C.C. (2006). Natural Change and the Troublesome Use of Substances.  In W.R. Miller & K.M. Carroll (Eds.) Rethinking Substance Abuse: What the science shows and what we should do about it.  New York: Guilford Press (pp 81-96).
  • Marinilli, A., Guarda, A.S., Heinberg, L.J., & DiClemente, C.C. (2006). Development of the Eating Disorders Recovery Self-Efficacy Questionnaire.  International Journal of Eating Disorders.
  • Werch, C., Jobli, E., Moore, M.J., DiClemente, C.C., Dore, H., Brown, C.H. (2006) Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Adolescents Differ by Beverage Type?  Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 15(3), 45-62.


  • DiClemente, C.C. (2005). A premature Obituary for the Transtheoretical Model: A Response to Robert West.  Addiction, 1048-1050.
  • DiClemente, C.C. (2005) The Challenge of Change.  The Journal of Trauma, 59, 1-2.
  • DiClemente, C.C. (2005) Current status of psychotherapy integration.  In J.C. Norcross & M.R. Goldfried (Eds) Future Direction of Psychotherapy Integration: A Roundtable.  Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 15(4), 392-471.
  • DiClemente, C.C. (2005) Conceptual Models and Applied Research: The Ongoing Contribution of the Transtheoretical Model.  Journal of Addictions Nursing, 16, 5-12.
  • Prochaska, J.O. & DiClemente, C.C. (2005) Transtheoretical Approach.  In J.N. Norcross & M. Goldfreid (Eds.)  Handbook of Eclectic Psychotherapy.  New York: Bruner Mazel. Pp 147-171.
  • Tiro, J.A., Diamond, P.M., Perz, C.A., Fernandez, M., Rakowski, W. DiClemente, C.C., Vernon, S.W. (2005) Validation of scales measuring attitudes and norms related to mammography screening.  Health Psychology, 555-566.
  • Werch, C., Jobli, E., Moore, M.J., DiClemente, C.C., Dore, H., Brown, C.H. (2005) A brief Experimental Alcohol Beverage-Tailored program for Adolescents.  Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(2), 284-290.
  • Werch, C. E., Moore, M. J., DiClemente, C. C., Bledsoe, R., & Jobli, E. (2005). A Multi-Health Behavior Intervention Integrating Physical Activity and Substance Use Prevention for Adolescents. Prevention Science, 213-226.


  • Delaney, H.D. & DiClemente, C.C. (2004) Psychology’s roots: A brief history of the Influence of Judeo-Christian perspectives.  In W.R. Miller & H.D. Delaney (Eds.) Judeo-Christian Perspectives on Psychology: Human nature, Motivation and Change. (pp. 31-54).
  • DiClemente, C.C. (2004)  Measuring Health Behavior Change.  In S. Keller & W.F. Velicer (Eds.) Research on the Transtheoretical Model : Where are we now and where are we going ?  Lengerich, Germany : Pabst Science Publishers, p. 42 (Abstract)
  • DiClemente, C.C., Delahanty, J., & Schlundt, D. (2004). A dynamic process perspective on gambling problems. In J. L. Derevensky & R. Gupta (Eds.), Gambling problems in youth: Theoretical and applied perspectives. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
  • DiClemente, C.C. & Delaney, H.D. (2004) Implication of Judeo-Christian views of Human Nature, Motivation and Change for the Science and Practice of Psychology.  In W.R. Miller & H.D. Delaney (Eds.) Judeo-Christian Perspectives on Psychology: Human nature, Motivation and Change. (pp. 271-290).
  • DiClemente, C.C., Ferentz, K., & Velasquez, M.M. (2004) Health behavior change and the problem of “noncompliance”.  In L.J. Haas (Ed.) Handbook of Primary Care Psychology.  New York: Oxford University Press. (pp. 157-172).
  • DiClemente, C.C., Schlundt, D., & Gemmell, L. (2004). Readiness and stages of change in addiction treatment. American Journal on Addictions, 13(2), 103-119.
  • Guarda, A. S., Coughlin, J. W., Cummings, M., Marinilli, A. S., Haug, N., Boucher, M., & Heinberg, L. J. (2004). Chewing and spitting in eating disorders and its relationship to binge eating. Eating Behaviors, 5, 231-239.
  • Haug, N.A., Svikis, D.S. & DiClemente, C.C. (2004) Motivational enhancement therapy for nicotine dependence in methadone maintained pregnant women.  Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18 (3), 289-292.


  • Coughlin, J. W., Heinberg, L. J., Marinilli, A. S., & Guarda, A. S. (2003). Body image disturbance in children: The role of parental influences. Healthy Weight Journal, 17, 56-59.
  • DiClemente, C.C. (2003). Addiction and Change: How Addictions Develop and Addicted people Recover. New York: Guilford Press.
    • A Special Offer from Guilford Press: Save 20% with Promotion Code 2E
  • Donovan, D.M., Carroll, K.M., Kadden, R.M., DiClemente, C.C. & Rounsaville, B.J. (2003) therapies for matching: selection, development, implementation, and costs. In Babor, T. & DelBoca, F. (Eds.) Treatment Matching in Alcoholism. Cambridge University Press. (pp. 42-61).
  • DiClemente, C.C., Carroll, K.M., Miller, W.R., Connors, GJ & Donovan, D.M. (2003). A look inside treatment: Therapist effects, the therapeutic alliance, and the process of intentional behavior change. In: Babor, T. & DelBoca, F. (Eds.) Treatment Matching in Alcoholism. Cambridge University Press. (pp. 166-183).
  • DiClemente, C. C., Jordan, L., Marinilli, A. S., & Nidecker, M. (2003). Psychotherapy in alcoholism treatment. In B.A. Johnson, P. Ruiz, & M. Galanter. (Eds.). Handbook of Clinical Alcoholism Treatment (pp.102-110). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.
  • Ned L. Cooney, Thomas F. Babor, Carlo C. DiClemente and Frances K. Del Boca (2003). Clinical and Scientific Implications of Project MATCH. In: Babor, T. & DelBoca, F. (eds.) Treatment Matching in Alcoholism. Cambridge University Press. (pp.222-237)


  • DiClemente CC & Velasquez, M. (2002) Motivational Interviewing and the Stages of Change. In WR Miller & S. Rollnick (Eds.) Motivational Interviewing, Second Edition: Preparing People for Change. New York: Guilford Publications, Inc.


  • Connors, G., Donovan, D., & DiClemente, CC. (2001) Substance Abuse Treatment and the Stages of Change: Selecting and Planning Interventions. New York: Guilford Press.
  • DiClemente, C.C. (2001). Il processo di cambiamento. Italian Heart Journal. Vol 2, Suppl. 1 pp. 1-5.
  • DiClemente, C.C., Carbonari, J. C., Daniels, J.W., Donovan, D.M., Bellino, L.E. & Neavins, T.M. (2001) Self-Efficacy as a Matching Hypothesis: Causal Chain Analysis. In: Longabaugh, R. and Wirtz, P.W., (Eds). Project MATCH: A Priori Matching Hypotheses, Results, and Mediating Mechanisms. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Project MATCH Monograph Series, Volume 8. (pp. 239-259) Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
  • DiClemente, C.C.; Carbonari, J.; Zweben, A.; Morrel, T.; & Lee., R.E. (2001) Motivation hypothesis causal chain analysis. In: Longabaugh, R. and Wirtz, P.W., (Eds). Project MATCH: A Priori Matching hypotheses, Results, and Mediating Mechanisms. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Project MATCH Monograph Series, Volume 8. (pp. 206-222) Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
  • DiClemente, CC & Haug, N. (October, 2001) Smoking Cessation: Helping Patients through the Process. Journal of COPD Management. 2(4), 4-9.
  • DiClemente, C.C., Marinilli, A.S., Singh, M., & Bellino, L.E. (2001). The role of feedback in the process of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Behavior, 25(3) 217-227.
  • Lee, R.E., Nigg, C.R., DiClemente, C.C., & Courneya, K.S. (2001). Validating motivational readiness for exercise behavior with adolescents, Research Quarterly of Exercise and Sports, 72(4), 401-410.
  • Mullen, P.D., DiClemente, C.C. & Bartholomew, L.K. (2001). Theory and context in project PANDA: A program to help postpartum women stay off cigarettes. Intervention mapping: designing theory- and evidence-based health promotion programs (pp. 453-476). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield .
  • Velasquez, M.M., Maurer, G., Crouch, C., & DiClemente, C.C. (2001). Group Treatment for Substance Abuse: A Stages-of-Change Therapy Manual. New York, NY: Guildford Publications
    • A Special Offer from Guilford Press: Save 20% with Promotion Code 2E